Faraday, Michael

Faraday, Michael
SUBJECT AREA: Electricity
b. 22 September 1791 Newington, Surrey, England
d. 25 August 1867 London, England
English physicist, discoverer of the principles of the electric motor and dynamo.
Faraday's father was a blacksmith recently moved south from Westmorland. The young Faraday's formal education was limited to attendance at "a Common Day School", and then he worked as an errand boy for George Riebau, a bookseller and bookbinder in London's West End. Riebau subsequently took him as an apprentice bookbinder, and Faraday seized every opportunity to read the books that came his way, especially scientific works.
A customer in the shop gave Faraday tickets to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecturing at the Royal Institution. He made notes of the lectures, bound them and sent them to Davy, asking for scientific employment. When a vacancy arose for a laboratory assistant at the Royal Institution, Davy remembered Faraday, who he took as his assistant on an 18- month tour of France, Italy and Switzerland (despite the fact that Britain and France were at war!). The tour, and especially Davy's constant company and readiness to explain matters, was a scientific education for Faraday, who returned to the Royal Institution as a competent chemist in his own right. Faraday was interested in electricity, which was then viewed as a branch of chemistry. After Oersted's announcement in 1820 that an electric current could affect a magnet, Faraday devised an arrangement in 1821 for producing continuous motion from an electric current and a magnet. This was the basis of the electric motor. Ten years later, after much thought and experiment, he achieved the converse of Oersted's effect, the production of an electric current from a magnet. This was magneto-electric induction, the basis of the electric generator.
Electrical engineers usually regard Faraday as the "father" of their profession, but Faraday himself was not primarily interested in the practical applications of his discoveries. His driving motivation was to understand the forces of nature, such as electricity and magnetism, and the relationship between them. Faraday delighted in telling others about science, and studied what made a good scientific lecturer. At the Royal Institution he introduced the Friday Evening Discourses and also the Christmas Lectures for Young People, now televised in the UK every Christmas.
1991, Curiosity Perfectly Satisfyed. Faraday's Travels in Europe 1813–1815, ed. B.Bowers and L.Symons, Peter Peregrinus (Faraday's diary of his travels with Humphry Davy).
Further Reading
L.Pearce Williams, 1965, Michael Faraday. A Biography, London: Chapman \& Hall; 1987, New York: Da Capo Press (the most comprehensive of the many biographies of Faraday and accounts of his work).
For recent short accounts of his life see: B.Bowers, 1991, Michael Faraday and the Modern World, EPA Press. G.Cantor, D.Gooding and F.James, 1991, Faraday, Macmillan.
J.Meurig Thomas, 1991, Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution, Adam Hilger.

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Faraday, Michael — born Sept. 22, 1791, Newington, Surrey, Eng. died Aug. 25, 1867, Hampton Court English physicist and chemist. Son of a blacksmith, he received only a basic education in a church Sunday school, but he went to work as an assistant to Humphry Davy,… …   Universalium

  • Faraday , Michael — (1791–1867) British physicist and chemist Faraday s father was a blacksmith who suffered from poor health and could only work irregularly. Faraday, who was born in Newington, knew real poverty as a child and his education was limited for he left… …   Scientists

  • Faraday, Michael — (1791–1867)    Scientist.    Faraday was the son of a blacksmith working in London. He started his scientific career as an assistant to Sir Humphry Davy and became Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution in 1827. He is remembered as the… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Faraday, Michael — (1791–1867) English scientist. The son of a blacksmith, Faraday was apprenticed to a bookbinder when he attracted the attention of Sir Humphrey Davy in 1812. His discovery of electro magnetic ‘lines of force’ and his view of the atom as merely a… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Faraday,Michael — Far·a·day (fărʹə dā , dē), Michael. 1791 1867. British physicist and chemist who discovered electromagnetic induction (1831) and proposed the field theory later developed by Maxwell and Einstein. * * * …   Universalium

  • Faraday, Michael —    Contemporary illustrator of erotic novels …   Dictionary of erotic artists: painters, sculptors, printmakers, graphic designers and illustrators

  • Faraday, Michael — ► (1791 1867) Físico y químico británico. Pudo, con la ayuda de un voltímetro de su invención, establecer las leyes cualitativas de la electrólisis, debiéndosele las denominaciones de «ánodo» y «cátodo». Sus descubrimientos más importantes son:… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • FARADAY, MICHAEL —    a highly distinguished chemist and natural philosopher, born at Newington Butts, near London, of poor parents; received a meagre education, and at 13 was apprenticed to a bookseller, but devoted his evenings to chemical and electrical studies …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Faraday, Michael —  (1791–1867) British chemist and physicist …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Faraday, Michael — (1791 1867)    Natural philosopher, s. of a blacksmith, was b. in London, and apprenticed to a book binder. He early showed a taste for chemistry, and attended the lectures of Sir H. Davy (q.v.), by whom he was, in 1813, appointed his chemical… …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Faraday — Faraday, Michael …   Philosophy dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”